K. Schuhmann, Christoph Romanin, Werner Baumgartner, Klaus Groschner,
"Intracellular Ca2+ inhibits smooth muscle L-type Ca2+ channels by activation of protein phosphatase type 2B and by direct interaction with the channel"
, in The Journal of General Physiology, Vol. 110, Nummer 5, Seite(n) 503-513, 1997, ISSN: 0022-1295
Intracellular Ca2+ inhibits smooth muscle L-type Ca2+ channels by activation of protein phosphatase type 2B and by direct interaction with the channel
Sprache des Titels:
Modulation of L-type Ca2+ channels by tonic elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ was investigated in intact cells and inside-out patches from human umbilical vein smooth muscle. Ba2+ was used as charge carrier, and run down of Ca2+ channel activity in inside-out patches was prevented with calpastatin plus ATP. Increasing cytoplasmic Ca2+ in intact cells by elevation of extracellular Ca2+ in the presence of the ionophore A23187 inhibited the activity of L-type Ca2+ channels in cell-attached patches. Measurement of the actual level of intracellular free Ca2+ with fura-2 revealed a 50\% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 260 nM and a Hill coefficient close to 4 for Ca2+- dependent inhibition. Ca2+-induced inhibition of Ca2+ channel activity in intact cells was due to a reduction of channel open probability and availability. Ca2+-induced inhibition was not affected by the protein kinase inhibitor H-7 (10 microM) or the cytoskeleton disruptive agent cytochalasin B (20 microM), but prevented by cyclosporin A (1 microg/ ml), an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2B (calcineurin). Elevation of Ca2+ at the cytoplasmic side of inside-out patches inhibited Ca2+ channels with an IC50 of 2 microM and a Hill coefficient close to unity. Direct Ca2+-dependent inhibition in cell-free patches was due to a reduction of open probability, whereas availability was barely affected. Application of purified protein phosphatase 2B (12 U/ml) to the cytoplasmic side of inside-out patches at a free Ca2+ concentration of 1 microM inhibited Ca2+ channel open probability and availability. Elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in the presence of PP2B, suppressed channel activity in inside-out patches with an IC50 of approximately 380 nM and a Hill coefficient of approximately 3; i.e., characteristics reminiscent of the Ca2+ sensitivity of Ca2+ channels in intact cells. Our results suggest that L-type Ca2+ channels of smooth muscle are controlled by two Ca2+-dependent negative feedback mechanisms. These mechanisms