X-ray absorption spectroscopy in electrical fields: An element-selective probe of atomic polarization
Sprache des Titels:
We have studied a range of polar and nonpolar materials using x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) in external electric fields. An energy shift of the XANES by a few meV/kV is found which scales linearly with the applied voltage, thus being reminiscent of the linear Stark effect. This is corroborated by the consistent presence of this energy shift in polar thin films and bulk crystals and its absence in nonpolar materials as well as in conducting films. The observed energy shift of the XANES is different between two atomic species in one specimen and appears to scale linearly with the atomic number of the studied element. Therefore, XANES in electrical fields opens the perspective to study atomic polarization with element specificity in a range of functional materials.