Online scheduled execution of quantum circuits protected by surface codes
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Quantum circuits are the preferred formalism for expressing quantum information processing tasks. Quantum circuit design automation methods mostly use a waterfall approach and consider that high level circuit descriptions are hardware agnostic. This assumption has lead to a static circuit perspective: the number of quantum bits and quantum gates is determined before circuit execution and everything is considered reliable with zero probability of failure. Many different schemes for achieving reliable fault-tolerant quantum computation exist, with different schemes suitable for different architectures. A number of large experimental groups are developing architectures well suited to being protected by surface quantum error correcting codes. Such circuits could include unreliable logical elements, such as state distillation, whose failure can be determined only after their actual execution. Therefore, practical logical circuits, as envisaged by many groups, are likely to have a dynamic structure. This requires an online scheduling of their execution: one knows for sure what needs to be executed only after previous elements have finished executing. This work shows that scheduling shares similarities with place and route methods. The work also introduces the first online schedulers of quantum circuits protected by surface codes. The work also highlights scheduling efficiency by comparing the new methods with state of the art static scheduling of surface code protected fault-tolerant circuits.