Intra-Arterial Papaverine-Hydrochloride and Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty of Neurointerventional Management of Delayed-Onset Post-Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Vasospasm
Sprache des Titels:
After subarachnoid hemorrhage, delayed onset vasospasm can result in devastating ischemic stroke. The phenomenon of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is not yet fully understood, and the correlation of angiographic vasospasm and cerebral infarction is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of endovascular treatment on the angiographic response and occurrence of DCI.
Eighty patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and serious cerebral vasospasm underwent endovascular treatment using intra-arterial papaverine-hydrochloride (IAP) or transluminal balloon angioplasty (TBA). The angiographic response and infarction rate were classified using the pre- and postinterventional angiographic images and computed tomography scans.
In 90% of patients, vasospasm could be improved. In most cases (78.8%), IAP was used. Retreatment after IAP was necessary in 32.9% of patients but never after TBA. A total of 233 vascular territories were treated in 128 procedures. Angiographic improvement was observed in 66.5% of territories, which was significantly associated with early intervention (P = 0.02), the use of TBA (P = 0.01), and the dose of papaverine-hydrochloride (P = 0.01). DCI occurred in 47.5% of the patients. Territorial infarction was associated with a poor Hunt and Hess grade (P = 0.03), day of aneurysm treatment (P = 0.01), severe vasospasm before (P = 0.02) and after (P = 0.03) treatment, and number of interventions (P = 0.01). However, the infarction rate was independent of the angiographic response.
The discrepancy of excellent angiographic results and the high incidence of DCI might stem from an inaccurate or a delayed diagnosis of impending ischemia. In view of the limited time window, optimized peri-interventional management and continuous cerebral multimodality neuromonitoring might be crucial for the ideal timing of endovascular procedures to prevent cerebral infarctions.