Interface structure and composition of MoO3/GaAs(0 0 1)
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We studied growth, structure, stress, oxidation state as well as surface and interface structure and composition of thermally-evaporated thin MoO3 films on the technologically important III/V-semiconductor substrate GaAs(0 0 1). The MoO3 films grow with Mo in the 6+ oxidation state. The electrical resistance is tunable by the oxygen partial pressure during deposition from transparent insulating to semi-transparant halfmetallic. In the investigated growth temperature range (room temperature to 200 °C) no diffraction spots are detected by x-ray diffraction. However, high resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals the formation of MoO3nanocrystal grains with diameters of 5?8 nm. At the interface a ?3 nm-thick intermediate layer has formed, where the single-crystal lattice of GaAs gradually transforms to the nanocrystalline MoO3 structure. This interpretation is corroborated by our in situ and real-time stress measurements evidencing a two-stage growth process as well as by elemental interface analysis revealing coexistance of Ga, As, Mo, and oxygen in a intermediate layer of 3?4 nm.