In vitro exposure of the shisha tobacco ingredient glycerol to human mucosa cells and lymphocytes
Sprache des Titels:
Shisha tobacco has a higher amount of glycerol than cigarette tobacco. Moreover, new legislation in Germany cancels the old limitation of humectants in shisha tobacco. Although higher amounts of glycerol in tobacco are expected, the knowledge of the toxicological profile of glycerol regarding human cells is incomplete. Aim of the study was to test glycerol for cytotoxic and genotoxic effects and to discuss the risk of humectants in shisha tobacco and the situation of German tobacco control.Lymphocytes and nasal mucosa cells of 10 patients were exposed to different glycerol levels (0.001?mol/l to 6.0?mol/l). Cytotoxic effects were examined by trypan blue exclusion test, genotoxic effects by comet assay and micronucleus test.The trypan blue exclusion test revealed significant cytotoxic effects on lymphocytes and nasal mucosa cells for glycerol concentrations of 1.0?mol/l and higher. In the comet assay a significant DNA damage could be shown for glycerol levels of 1.0?mol/l and higher. No significant micronucleus formation was monitored.While the geno- and cytotoxicity were seen in concentrations of glycerol clearly exceeding the concentrations in main stream smoke of shishas, genotoxicity is a stochastic risk occurring even at subtoxic levels. Furthermore, toxicity in lower levels could result from tobacco combustion or interactions with other smoke components. For an extensive evaluation of the risks of humectants in shisha tobacco further studies are needed. In addition, there is an enormous need for introducing further measures of tobacco control policy in Germany.