Crack Identification in Necked Double Shear Lugs by Means of the Electro-Mechanical Impedance Method
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This contribution investigates fatigue crack detection, localization and quantification in idealized necked double shear lugs using piezoelectric transducers attached to the lug shaft and analyzed by the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) method. The considered idealized necked lug sample has a simplified geometry and does not includes the typical bearing. Numerical simulations with coupled-field finite element (FE) models are used to study the frequency response behavior of necked lugs. These numerical analyses include both pristine and cracked lug models. Through-cracks are located at 90° and 145° to the lug axis, which are critical spots for damage initiation. The results of FE simulations with a crack location at 90° are validated with experiments using an impedance analyzer and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. For both experiments, the lug specimen is excited and measured using a piezoelectric active wafer sensor in a frequency range of 1kHz?100kHz. The dynamic response of both numerical calculations and experimental measurements show good agreement. To identify (i.e., detect, locate, and quantify) cracks in necked lugs a two-step analysis is performed. In the first step, a crack is detected data-based by calculating damage metrics between pristine and damaged state frequency spectra and comparing the resulting values to a pre-defined threshold. In the second step the location and size of the detected crack is identified by evaluation of specific resonance frequency shifts of the necked lug. Both the search for frequencies sensitive to through-cracks that allow a distinction between the two critical locations and the evaluation of the crack size are model-based. This two-step analysis based on the EMI method is demonstrated experimentally at the considered idealized necked lug, and thus, represents a promising way to reliably detect, locate and quantify fatigue cracks at critical locations of real necked double shear lugs.