Assessment of lithium ion battery ageing by combined impedance spectroscopy, functional microscopy and finite element modelling
Sprache des Titels:
Development of future battery generations and quality control of current lithium-ion battery (LIB) systems require reliable techniques for the characterization of the complex dynamic processes in batteries. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is an established tool for the electrochemical characterization of LIBs and the related ageing processes. Nevertheless, ensuring a reliable interpretation and validation of the impedance data remains challenging. Here we show how EIS complemented by microscopy data can be successfully used to follow battery ageing. We connect data from both methods in an electrochemical finite element model (FEM) to extract changes of intrinsic battery parameters, such as double layer capacitance, film resistance, exchange current density, and particle radii. Ageing mechanisms induced by cycling and temperature are investigated by EIS on commercial cells. Postmortem analysis of the anode and cathode electrodes is carried out to determine their initial micrometric and nanometric structure and to independently investigate morphological and electrical changes induced by ageing. While the obtained initial structural dimensions reduce drastically the number of adjustable parameters in the FEM model, which enables us to follow battery ageing processes noninvasively through the EIS spectra, the microscopy results of the aged cells prove independently the validity of the here presented approach.