The Development and Biomechanical Analysis of an Allograft Interference Screw for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
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Graft fixation during cruciate ligament reconstruction using interference screws is a common and frequently used surgical technique. These interference screws are usually made of metal or bioabsorbable materials. This paper describes the development of an allograft interference screw from cortical human bone. During the design of the screw, particular attention was paid to the choice of the screw drive and the screw shape, as well as the thread shape. Based on these parameters, a prototype was designed and manufactured. Subsequently, the first biomechanical tests using a bovine model were performed. The test procedure comprised a torsion test to determine the ultimate failure torque of the screw and the insertion torque during graft fixation, as well as a pull-out test to asses the ultimate failure load of the graft fixation. The results of the biomechanical analysis showed that the mean value of the ultimate failure torque was 2633 Nmm, whereas the mean occurring insertion torque during graft fixation was only 1125 Nmm. The mean ultimate failure load of the graft fixation was approximately 235 N. The results of this work show a good overall performance of the allograft screw compared to conventional screws, and should serve as a starting point for further detailed investigations and studies.