ECG Electrode Localization: 3D DS Camera System for Use in Diverse Clinical Environments
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Models of the human body representing digital twins of patients have attracted increasing interest in clinical research for the delivery of personalized diagnoses and treatments to patients. For example, noninvasive cardiac imaging models are used to localize the origin of cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial infarctions. The precise knowledge of a few hundred electrocardiogram (ECG) electrode positions is essential for their diagnostic value. Smaller positional errors are obtained when extracting the sensor positions, along with the anatomical information, for example, from X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) slices. Alternatively, the amount of ionizing radiation the patient is exposed to can be reduced by manually pointing a magnetic digitizer probe one by one to each sensor. An experienced user requires at least 15 min. to perform a precise measurement. Therefore, a 3D depth-sensing camera system was developed that can be operated under adverse lighting conditions and limited space, as encountered in clinical settings. The camera was used to record the positions of 67 electrodes attached to a patient’s chest. These deviate, on average, by 2.0 mm ±1.5 mm from manually placed markers on the individual 3D views. This demonstrates that the system provides reasonable positional precision even when operated within clinical environments.